Anaesthetized animal model
Anaesthetized rodents are used to study LUT function in details. Micturition is evoked by saline infusion to urinary bladder. Bladder pressure recordings, urine (saline) flow rates, by using an ultrasonic flow probe placed around the most distal part of the urethra connected to a flow meter, associated with electrical activities of the urethral striated mucle, rhabdosphincter, may be recorded extracellularly by a monopolar suction electrode. The model is unique when detailed information is needed of the LUT function.
Awake animal model
Also awake rodents may be used in urodynamical recearch. The bladder is catheterized under anesthesia, and tunneled subcutaneously to the neck area. Infusion of saline evokes the micturition. Voided volumes with bladder pressure recordings may be performed in a metabolic cage without any restraint. This model is especially suitable in studied where pharmacological intervention is of interest.