TCDM provides extensive experience in generating both subcutaneous and orthotropic grafting of tumor cells into immunedeficient mice.  TCDM offers full service or technical support and collaboration in all phases of the project. This includes planning of the study, cell culture, tumor inoculation, following the tumor burden by palpation, biomarker analyses or imaging, randomization of the animals, as well as statistical analyses of the results.

The take-rate of the tumors and their growth rate largely depends on the properties of the cells, and thus, a pilot study is often required prior to a full study that should have enough tumor bearing mice for proper power calculations. From our experience, majority of the xenograft studies lack a proper power due to too low number of tumor bearing animals used. Xenograft studies with genetically modified MCF-7 breast cancer cells and PC-3M-luc2 prostate cancer cells provide reverences for these studies (Husen et al., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 248:109-13, 2006; Yatkin et al. Plos One 9:e93764, 2014).


Petra Sipilä, PhD
Adjunct Professor of Reproductive and Developmental Biology

Email: petra.sipila(at)